Fearism is the most recent Philosophy in the World »

An interview with Desh Subba

1. What word should be coined to call you: philosopher, poet, novelist or writer?

I’m a man, who is working hard to be all of them: philosopher, poet and novelist. Yet I’ve not hit the target. Foundation, window, door, roof, sand, cement, word etc are required to complete the construction of a house. When the work of construction completes, it takes shape and size a house. Similarly, I’m working hard to be philosopher, poet and novelist as I’ve mentioned above. When the process completes, a name may be coined to call me. I think philosophy is really much more powerful ideologically. A philosophy is like a fund of ideologies. It contains less amount of pleasure than the amount of ideology. Meaning is important here – it depends on individual perception. In my opinion, consciousness, knowledge, conditional reflex and environment are essential to comprehend the meaning. Comprehension of these all will further generate meanings. These meanings constitute life and the world. Literary texts like poem, novel, story, drama and other are the combination of both ideology and pleasure. When my transition on construction completes, I may be recognized as a philosopher or a writer. It’s a fact! A large number of writers come into being but only few of them transform into philosopher. This is what the situation I’m in.

2. A huge discourse on the philosophy of Fearism is going on now, isn’t it?

Yes! The discourse on Fearism is taking its pace gradually. Discourse and thought on Fearism, fearist ideological thinking, novel based on Fearism ‘Adhibasi’, fearist criticism on drama, ‘Hechhakuppa’ and collection of poems ‘Baishko Rukh’ have already been published. Thus, texts continue on to be published. Nepali text of Fearism is not yet published. Incredibly, the American publisher published the Philosophy of Fearism in English version. Now, the discourse on it is at the climax. Some people do not believe it. How can they believe it? They are writing since years to reach the same height but they are lost somewhere at the bottom. I think it is because a real way to walk is not yet found. The writers should find out the right way to walk first. Then, it is possible to go ahead.

I worked hard on Fearism to give this height. Fearism Study Centre (FSC) is also working hard on it. Rana Kafle is also doing the same in Assam, India. It is much discussed in India whereas it seems to be shadowed over here. Discussion and seminars have been held in Sikkim, Darjeeling, Assam, Manmar, Arunachal and Nagaland. Articles in Nepali, English, Assamis and Manipuri have been published. Discussion on it is continuous to expand. Rana Kafle makes regular program on Fearism for its promotion. These all have expanded the discussion on Fearism. I hope it will continue to expand in days to come.  

3. What is the Philosophy of Fearism?

Fearism is a new philosophy. It includes detail interpretation of Fearism. Fear exists among us since prehistoric period. Philosophers, writers, musicians and artists have made merely negative interpretation till this time. In fact fear consciousness is the oldest one among consciousness. This fear consciousness guides, controls and directs us. Our inventions and constructions are the result of fear consciousness. Police, army, hospital, law, society, court, government, school, insurance, bank etc are to minimize the fear. I’ve interpreted it with formula in my book, ‘Philosophy of Fearism’. Death fear, fear of prestige, fear of disease, fear of losing property and fear of social chaos lie behind it. Fear is the foundation of all philosophies. These all can cause fear patients. Fear disease can expand gradually. Therefore, I’ve argued for hospital, medicine and doctors. Tension, murdering, suicide, war, worry and mental sickness originate from the fear. This is reality too. I’ve not only argued for areas and rectangle of fear, I’ve prescribed primary and secondary level treatments. In short, Philosophy of Fearism is merely a basket of interpretation on various fears.

4. Who can utilize the philosophy of Fearism?

Utility is the most important thing. We are lost somewhere between questions like which caste, group or class are beneficiaries of philosophy of Fearism or which age group does it benefit?  We need to be informed about who suffer from the fear in order to know about the utility of Fearism. Plants, animals, insects and human beings suffer from the fear according to level of their consciousness. Adults suffer much among them. Reasons behind it are responsibility, duty and prestige. It transfers into fear disease or problem as it expands on. It is useful for all human beings. Conscious is its foundation.  The people who have much works, desires, responsibility and prestige along with their consciousness, suffer much from the fear. It is useful to those who suffer much from fear.

5. Is Fearism a new philosophy in the world literature?

The world Fearism was used by philosophers, writers and doctors even in the past. It was used in negative and narrow sense.  It is used as phobia in the west. Acharya Bharata has used it as fear ras in his ras theory. I’ve just worked on it to care and bring it up. Now, it is young. It is trying to blossom. It was small in size yesterday. Now it is on the way to be established as a new philosophy. Nobody has made attempt to make the fear a major issue in his/her writing before. Therefore, it’s not any way to claim it as the most recent philosophy in the world.

6. What is the significance of the philosophy of Fearism in Nepali literature?

We should not confine this philosophy of Fearism merely within Nepali literature. We have to link it to work, literature, art, culture, music, criticism, science, life so on and so forth. It exists everywhere. No doubt, it has a huge significance in literature. Nepali literature has been indebted to the world literature. Fearism helps at least to pay interest of the dept. We can be proud of Fearism. We have been judging the world and life through the imported perspective till this time. Now, we have a new philosophy. We can make judgment through this fundamental perspective. Any powerful ideology is not born in the world literature on behalf of Nepali literature. Some stories, novel and poems have been exported. It has worked to repair the relationship. This is the first powerful ideology. First always acquires specific scope. Tenjing Sherpa first reached the summit of Mt. Everest and he opened the way for others. Time passed. Many other people reached the summit since then. The place made by Tenjing Sherpa is always secured. His step is not replaceable. Fearism is like that.

7. What is Fearism Study Center (FSC) doing these days?

Fearism Study Center (FSC) has been established to promote Fearism. We are trying to institutionalize it. Many programs have been conducted. The discourse on it is going on. We publish books, booklets and journals. We have established prize for promotion. In total, FSC is working continuously to promote and promulgate Fearism.

8. What are the reasons behind much discussion on the Philosophy of Fearism in north-east India?

It’s Rana Kafle who has done a lot for such discussion in northeast India. He lives in Karbianglana district in Assam. He is working hard to promote it. He is writing articles on it. He is also conducting basibiyalo program (program on leisure). He has conducted such programs in various districts in Assam, Nagaland, Manmar, Meghalaya, Darjeeling and Siligudi. He sometimes assembles scholars for meeting and seminars as well. An international seminar was organized in 2013 in Dharan, the eastern part of Nepal under his coordination. Many northeast Nepalese, Non-Residential Nepalese (NRN), writers, journalists and scholars have been attracted to this Philosophy of Fearism due to his continuous efforts. If he had other support, it could have achieved new height. However this height in this short period is appreciable. Many NRNs agree with this philosophy. Many people consider it a new philosophy. A major reason behind its popularity is fear of existential crisis. This situation does not exist in Nepal, so it has low impact.

9. New edition of Philosophy of Fearism in English has created a wave around the world. Do you think it right?

I have done some works to create such wave and many of my friends have supported for it. Works for its promotion on behalf of publisher are not yet started. Preparation works for it are undergoing. We are planning for participating in international book expos, around 500 press releases, reviews and website. I believe that the promotion and publication must be according to the gravity of issue. Works are being done accordingly. Some of the works will complete within this year. Only then we need to evaluate its impact, gravity and scope. It’s too early to evaluate the work right now.

10. How is it possible for you since such scenario does not exist in Nepali literature and philosophy?

Continuous efforts can open the path. I made the same continuous effort on it. I began to search online publisher. Prof. Dr. Stimlet Dakhar, who lives in Meghalaya, India, helped me search Indian publishers. Indian publishers didn’t show interest for its publication. Similarly Nepali publishers are still not showing interest for publication of Nepali version. Issue like this with such gravity doesn’t suit the small market. This is the time of cyber. We can find many online publishers. But too many people have been deceived by the publisher like them. Many of them can not be trustworthy and honest. Still I continued to search for the publication. I found the publisher after a long search. It’s not easier to trust the publisher. Some publishers from UK proposed for the publication but I could not agree their proposal. Then I started to work with the present American publisher. I had fear in the mind in the beginning. I was not sure for the publication of the book from America. I thought they would deceive me. I didn’t break out my work and plan till I received the book at hand. I suffer from the fear of prestige. I had to work to protect prestige. Now, I understood one thing. They have developed a system and work accordingly. This work came to completion more systematically than I had thought. They have a huge coverage all over the world. It’s easier to reach the global market through their connections. Self-efforts merely kill the time.

11. Could you please tell us about your poem, ‘Karma’?

I sometimes do write poems. But I write when I am deeply impressed by some events. Nepali literature in Hong Kong in the past was passive. I began to write line poems to make friends in Hong Kong active for literary creation. Line poem worked as an inspiration gradually. A perspective was developed to look at life and the world later. Many friends including Tanka Sambahamphe are still writing line poems. I’ve created four hundred pages long epic. I spent almost a decade for it. It is not yet published. I’m waiting the time to publish it. I do write contemporary poems as well. In short, I enjoy writing poems.

12. How to evaluate your contribution to Nepali literature in Hong Kong?

Gorkhali soldiers were still in Hong Kong. I used to write for Parbate magazine and BFBS radio literature. My participation added a brick there. I have also worked to add a brick for Nepali language and literature in Hong Kong as Nepali teachers, journalists, students and writers have done. Philosophy of Fearism, line poems and all sort of writings started from Hong Kong. We had established Nepali Sahitya Pratisthan fifteen years ago in Hong Kong. We are still working in this institution. Nepali literature of Hong Kong has been included in bachelor level course in Nepal. Dipak Subedi submitted a thesis on ‘Contribution of Hong Kong to Nepali Literature’ in his master degree. I have made contributions to them all. I hope time will come to evaluate these all.

13. What can we do to establish Nepali society in Hong Kong?

It’s important to establish the society. But we need a base to establish Nepali society. The society with distinct language, script, culture and religion can have a strong base. Both existence and identity are essential for the society. The society must be strong economically, socially and politically. Now we are undergoing minority and transition. We are talking about establishment of Nepali society and its base but the situation is different. We are struggling hard for the survival as said by Darwin. Abraham Maslow interpreted it in his Theory of Necessity. These all stand on fear. We can’t do other works unless we maintain food, shelter and security. Our mentality always remains seeking for it. When we maintain stability regarding to these all, then we can assume Nepali society has been established to some extent.

14. What can we do for Nepali language?

We have to increase the use to make the language strong. The more it is closed to official language, the longer it can survive. Let us look at the example around the world. Any language used in constitution, office, education and publication has become strong all over the world. Only three languages are recognized in Hong Kong. Booklets have been published even in minority languages for convenience of minority groups. Nepali language has acquired partial recognition since it has been used in nursery and primary level schools. It’s a good opportunity for Nepali language. We have to work a lot to promote it. The government paves the path. We use and walk on it. So, we should consider for its future to work now. Nepali teachers, journalists, writers, students and guardians all are equally responsible to it. They have equal contribution as well.    

(Translation by Rajendra Subba) 

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